Who were the muckrakers, and what impact did they have on American society?
Muckracker was a term used to describe American journalist who brought issues they found about society to light and created controversy. The muckrakers played a highly visible role during the Progressive Era, like Herbert Croly defended the growth government for democratic purposes through his writing The Promise of American Life. In this book, Croly delivered his argument for a planned economy, increased spending on education and the creation of a society based on the “brotherhood of mankind”; Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management systematized reorganization of Corporations and Industry on scientific principles. Taylor believed workers had too much power in the factory. In purpose to pursue efficiency, decisions should be made by trained managers; Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil and Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle were two principal works favoring reform for a greater regulation; Lincoln Steffens, the first one to strike by publishing an article in McClure’s magazine, exposed political corruption in many big cities; Samuel Hopkins Adams’ The Great American Fraud exosed false claims about patent medicines, and other talented journalists namely Ray Stannard Baker, George Creel, and Brand Whitlock exposed waste, corruption, and scandal operated at the local and state level. Those muckrakers and their works had conributed to the Progressive Era in US history.
The influence of the muckrakers began to appear around 1900 in Progressive Era. The Progressive Era was a time period of intense social and political reform in American history lasting from the 1890s to the 1920s. This era was motivated by the commitment in reforming every aspect of the state, society and economy by eliminating issues caused by corruption, inefficiency, industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and other social and political problems. During the Progressive Era, muckrakers took big role in reforming the state and the nation. These reform-minded American journalists attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. Muckrakers were known as progressive reformers and movements who believed that, through progressive reforms, American society would achieve greater democracy, greater efficiency, greater regulation, social justice, and government activism. As a watchdog journalists, muckrakers inform the public about factual issues in institutions and society, particularly the significant portion demanding changes in responses. Muckrakers exposed corruption issue (Steffens), industrialisation issues such as meat packaging (Sinclair) and Standard Oil Company (Tarbell). These cases raised the awareness of Americans from the minor to major issues, from crime to injustice. To conclude, muckrakers hold great influence in American society in Progressive Reform era.
Muckrakers. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/42b.asp
The Progressivee Era, 1900-1916. (n.d). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.littlejohnexplorers.com/jeff/history/progressiveera.PDF
In what ways was the election of 1912 significant?
The 1912 presidential campaign involved four candidates: Theodore Roosevelt as a Progressive, Eugene Debs run as a Socilialist, Wison and Taft represented two major parties. They all shared a fundamental presumption that the old idea of do-nothing government was bankrupt; present day conditions required dynamic measures to advance the general welfare. However, they contrasted in the nature and degree of their activism. After the Republicans renominated Taft, Roosevelt’s supporters shot the tradition, formed the Progressive party, and designated Roosevelt. Albeit some Democratic progressives bolstered Roosevelt, the split in the Republican party prompted Woodrow Wilson’s success. Having won a larger part in both places of congress and additionally the presidential election, the Democrats viably held national power surprisingly since the Civil War.
The 1912 election was important in four main ways: First, it was a high-water mark for Progressivism. In fact, the election was the first to include presidential primaries. The election brought fundamental changes in American politics suggesting the historical significance of the Progressive Party. High percentage of the the popular vote or as many electoral votes received by the third party on the American political scene in the 20th century was recognized as an extraordinary. Neither before nor after 1912, no third party for the presidency gained that large number of supporters and votes; Second, the election gave Democrats effective national power for the first time since the Civil War. Wilson’s winning in the election made Democrats became the majority in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Holding such a stable power in the house and senate, Democrats proved their ability to stand up from the fallen of power during the severe depression of the 1890s.
Third, the election of Wilson brought southerness back into the circle of national and international affairs in a significant way for the first time since the Civil War. During Wilson’s presidency, the name of the southerners had having its good reputation along with the Progressive legislation. Moreover, Five of Wilson’s ten cabinet members were born in the South, three still resided there, and William Jennings Bryan, the secretary of state, was an idol of the southern masses. Fourth, the election of 1912 had begun to alter the character of the Republican party. Although majority of professionals remained, the the defection of the Bull Moose Progressives had weakened the party’s progressive wing. The leaders of the Republican party that would return to power in the 1920s would be more conservative in tone and temperament. (Tindall, 2007).
The Election of 1912. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/43f.asp
Tindall, G. B., & Shi, D. E. (2007). America: a narrative history. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Why the Election of 1912 Changed America. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.claremont.org/crb/article/why-the-election-of-1912-changed-america/
Which of the progressive presidents was the most progressive? Which was the least progressive? Explain. The Progressive Era
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th American President served in office from September 14, 1901 to March 4, 1909, was the most progressive among the Progressive Leaders. According to The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project of The George Washington University, progressivism gained a strong voice in the White House when Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901, on the national level. During Theodore Roosevelt presidency, Progressivism and Progressive Movement was at its peak. On the other words, Theodore Rosevelt succeeded to promote the progressive reforms. His influence on Progressive Movement focused on efficiency and fairness. He believed American welfare could only be achieved if there were strong corporations and this corporate behavior must be under supervision to ensure that corporate greed did not get out of hand (trust-busting and federal regulation of business). Two other main Progressive presidents were William Howard Taft (1909-1913) and Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921). Their administrations mainly focused on social and political change in American society.
The Progressive Movement was led by male and female Progressives from all stake of society. These progressives were members of the Republican and Democrat political parties; well educated middle-class Americans, poorer Americans (often union activists); crusading Journalists, photographers and authors, also known as Muckrakers; teachers and educators; and members of the clergy. Jacob Riis, John Dewey, Lester Frank Ward, Frank Norris, Ida Tarbell, Thomas Nast, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Robert La Follette, Henry Demarest Lloyd, David Graham Philips, Upton Sinclair, Charles Edward Russell, Alice Paul, John Spargo, Eugene Debs, Lincoln Steffens, Ray Stannard Baker, Jane Addams, Booker T. Washinton, W.E.B. DuBois, Theodore Dreiser, Walter Rauschenbusch and Ida B.Wells were also notable Progressives Leaders. Many of them also recognized as Muckrakers, reform-minded American journalists.
Agricultural depression in the early 1890s and industrial depression began in 1893 brought about a need for Progressive Era. Apart from agricultural and industrialization issues, the need of intense reform also caused by other issues such as female suffrage, education, working conditions, unionization, the problems of urbanization, immigration, and child labor. As a response to the economic and social problems, Progressivism emerged. Progressivism in United States was basically a reform movement occured on Progressive Era (1890-1920). Progressivism movement started as a social movement and developed into a political movement. The movement encompassed various ideas and activities of reformist pressure groups. Progressives, groups of people struck for reforms, attacked corruption and injustice or unfair business practices. These progressives believed that the issues society faced could be best be managed and resolved by giving good education, a safe environment, and an efficient workplace.
The Progressive Era (1890 – 1920). (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/progressive-era.cfm
Progressive Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/progressive-movement.htm
The Art of the Start 2.0
the Time-Tested, Battle Hardened Guide for Anyone
by Guy Kawasaki
The Art of the Start: the Time-Tested, Battle Hardened Guide for Anyone written by Guy Kawasaki is a guide for anyone wants to start any business. This book delivers Guy’s formula on how to build a startup company from idea to concept to business model up to execution. It tells readers about what entrepreneurs do and do not. The book consists of four different sections: Conception, Activation, Proliferation, and Obligation with thirteen chapters on it. In each chapter featured by GIST, exercise, mini chapter, addenda for FAQ, and recommended reading. These features enrich the content and distinguished it from other conventional book.
The first chapter of the book, The Art of Starting Up, highlights the GIST (Great Ideas for Starting Things). It explains the most essential parts an entrepreneur must accomplish in starting a startup. The ideas are answer simple questions, find sweet spot, find soul mates, make meaning, make mantra, pick a business model, weave a MATT (Milestones, Assumptions, Tests, and Tasks), keep things clean and simple, and do something cling worthy. The point of this chapter is forming the DNA of the startup, and this genetic code is permanent. In other words, the concept made in this stage will be the foundation of the startup.
In the second section of the book, Kawasaki goes further into startup activation. He explains in details about launching – new beginning of startup’s activation. Last decades, product launch was a determinant of the startup future. It was costly, so if it is unsuccessful, the startup might be bankrupt. Unlike today, technologies give advantages to entrepreneurs launch their product with low cost until no cost. Kawasaki supports the fact that entrepreneurs can just launch the product for free now by using social media. However, these entrepreneurs still need to take it serious by making preparation before the launching. Good entrepreneurs do positioning and targeting to the segmented market. Besides having launching in the activation process, Kawasaki writes four more arts of starting covered leading, bootstrapping, fund-raising, and pitching.
Continuing to the next section, the book provides full-package of advice and action items in relation with the proliferation. Kawasaki gives guidelines on building a team, evangelizing, socializing, rainmaking, partnering, and enduring. It is essential for entrepreneurs to build a team in purpose to running the startup and facing big challenges. The main task is looking for the most effective candidates who believe in the startup and can do what it needs. Besides, these candidates must be likeable and trustworthy rather than having perfect background. Kawasaki also adds up useful tips on partnering like as: partner for “spreadsheet” reasons for the sake of financial forecast, cut win-win deals and get out of the belly – being stuck in partnering with big organization.
The last section of this book presents The Art of Being a Mensch explaining about how to achieve menschhood. This is the stage when an entrepreneur is recognized, by the people, as someone who are ethical, graceful and admirable. It is the highest form of commend and the pinnacle of a career. Kawasaki aspires entrepreneurs to a higher goal than making lots of money and building a large organization. Being an entrepreneur does not mean tell people what to do, buy nice stuff or travel to fun places. Good entrepreneurs create cool stuff, sell it and help people use it, hire people to help and build a company. Getting that far, entrepreneurs do something they love. They have a vision to give people a good life and make the world a better place. When they succeed, they do their obligation, repay the society, help many people and do what’s right.
One of the strengths of this book is the ability of the author to go off-topic and then return. Kawasaki is capable of delivering his proven business wisdom in accessible terms and with plentiful illustrative examples. He goes smoothly from one topic to the other topics, and explains it chronologically with insertion of story and illustration. The example of Get a Morpheus on The Art of Leading chapter is a very creative illustration. People know Morpheus is the character who delivered truth in Matrix movie. As well as in the movie, organization needs Morpheus as the one who is telling the right things to do. Morpheus, as Kawasaki says, acts as the expert who tells good or bad. This expert is needed to ensure that entrepreneurs realize when they are in denial just in case the denial is damaging the organization.
Informative and details are the second strength of this book. These plus point is shown in the part of The Art of Pitching. The reading in this chapter opens the eye of entrepreneurs to be aware of tiny details before and during the pitching. For instance, before doing pitch presentation, entrepreneurs must be prepared: bring own projector (anticipate if there is no projector in the pitching room), bring two laptops loaded up with the presentation materials (prevent the situation where the laptop run out of battery), bring two VGA adapters, copy of presentation on USB drive, and bring printouts of presentation materials in case all devices are not working. During the pitching, entrepreneurs should set the stage (prevent interruption), introduce self in the sixth minute (avoid the presentation becomes narration of autobiography), and master the points. Those all things rarely come up to entrepreneurs’ mind, and this book describes it clearly.
Another excellence of the book lies on how Kawasaki delivers the topic using straightforward approach. He keeps things simple, honest, and short. The acronyms like GIST, MATT and DICEE helps reader reminding the main points. This book might be ultimate entrepreneurship handbook, even if it is lack of theory background or statistics data. Kawasaki admits that some part of this book have less data to support the idea. For example, when he gives list of how to achieve humanness in The Art of Evangelizing chapter, Kawasaki says to target the young. No matter who buys the product, targeting young people forces entrepereneur to build a human brand. He has no data to back this up, but assumes that lots of people are buying products that targeted to the young. So, it is up to readers to agree or disagree on the idea.
Instead of giving utopia or ideal world of startup, this book reveals major mistakes that entrepreneurs do in building a startup such as feeling compelled to write a business plan or telling lies in pitching. Based on Kawasaki’s list of Top Ten Lies of Entrepreneurs, when an entrepreneur says, “All we have to do is get one percent of the market.” It is what venture capitalists call the Chinese Soda Lie. It seems like mission impossible where entrepreneurs must make one percent of people in China drink their soda while competing with existing big company. Then, the venture capitalists will response with other common lies such as, “I liked your company, but my partners didn’t.” Or, “Show us some traction, and we’ll invest.” Those sentences are soft-rejection from investor, simply as they say “No” to the entrepreneurs.
In short, The Art of the Start 2.0 is a must-read book for anyone considering starting up a startup. Through this book, the author, Kawasaki focuses primarily on the venture capital approach to entrepreneur. The book covers topics like positioning startup in the market, pitching to potential investors, creating ideal business plan and presentation, bootstrapping, recruiting employees, raising capital, partnering with other firms, branding, and selling the concept to the market. It teaches readers about business that MBA programs don’t and helps them to understand the content easily.
After all, I like this book for giving me out-of-my-box idea on how to starting a startup. It widens my understanding of the reality in business world. Focusing on The Art of the Start helps me save valuable time and energy for things that will actually move myself towards my entrepreneurial goals. My motivation to start a startup is boosting after reading the book. I realized that being entrepreneur does not mean being a rich guy with big company who can do everything. In contrast, being entrepreneur means being ethical person who wants to help people and changes the world. Other thing I learned from this book is the fact of A rank will employee A+ rank. It has opened my eye that CEO is not always the best staff in the organization. The truth is a wise CEO will employ a better person than him in the team.
DecoLens (Decoding Lens) is an eye-assistant that translates human gesture and expression into description. This lens apply algorithms to create artificial intelligence in decoding visual images into text in real time. It helps someone knowing the psychological condition of interlocutors and people around. This AI lens supports the development of business, education and social field. For example, marketing sales are helped by this DecoLens to find best product for their consumer. They are able to know the customer preferences, state of emotional and interest.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883 – 1950) was an Austrian-born American economist and political scientist. He briefly served as Finance Minister of Austria in 1919. In 1932 he became a professor at Harvard University where he remained until the end of his career. One of the most influential economists of the 20th century, Schumpeter popularized the term “creative destruction” in economics.
Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005) – the entrepreneur is someone who actually searches for change, responds to it, and exploit change as an opportunity. He was an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation. He was also a leader in the development of management education, he invented the concept known as management by objectives and self-control, and he has been described as “the founder of modern management”.
- Liberty Fund, Inc. (2007-10-08). “Joseph Alois Schumpeter: Biography”. Econlib.org. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
- Stone, Brad; Vance, Ashlee (January 25, 2009). “$200 Laptops Break a Business Model”. New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
Indeed, Silicon Valley may be one of the few places where businesses are still aware of the ideas of Joseph Schumpeter, an economist from Austria who wrote about business cycles during the first half of the last century. He said the lifeblood of capitalism was ‘creative destruction.’ Companies rising and falling would unleash innovation and in the end make the economy stronger.
- Drucker, Peter F. “Reflections of a Social Ecologist,” Society, May/June 1992.
- Denning, Steve (August 29, 2014). “The Best Of Peter Drucker”. Forbes
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