Introduction, Research Perspectives and Research Processes
In university level, research methodology becomes important to be understood. It enables students to organize their efforts into one cohesive and conceptual product idea generation task for them. According to BusinessDictionary, research methodology is a process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could include both present and historical information.
Research approaches can be generalized in three ways which are: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Quantitative research approach includes numbers, closed-ended, hypothesis, and instrumentation. Qualitative research approach includes words, open-ended, interview or observation, and setting or environment. While, mixed methods research approach is combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. Sometimes, it starts with numerical data, follow up with observations.
There are four important perspectives influence on research approaches covered post-positivism, constructivism, transformative, and pragmatism. Post positivism is known as scientific method or empirical science. It has characteristics which are: having causes and outcomes, reductive toward test variables, measuring objective reality, based on hypothesis (statistics-based), and having validation and reliability standards. Constructivism or interpretivism has characteristics covered experiences have subjective meaning, inductive: generate meaning, open-ended and broad questions, social, cultural and historical context, and acknowledge researcher perspective.
Transformative is a perspective that targets to create change and addresses marginalized individuals. It has characteristics covered participants may actively help, focus on lives and experiences, focus on inequalities, and leads to political and social actions. While, pragmatism is perspective that focuses on what works, not committed to any one philosophy and has many approaches — mixed methods.
BusinessDictionary. Retrieved at 5 September 2016 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research-methodology.html
Research Methods. (2016). Lecture 1: Introductions, Research Perspectives, and Research Processes. Sampoerna University