Arsifa Deliyana

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Week 4 The Theory of Culture

“Culture is the cultivation of the soul – Cultura Amini”

~Cicero

As Cicero says, culture is the development of the human soul. The using of “cultivation” represents human soul growing up like seed into plants. The soul is getting mature through living, learning and acting. It just like a seed that growing up by feed and received fertilizer. Culture also has different meaning, according to Samuel Pufenndorf, culture as the ways that humans do to overcome their origin barbarism and its expected to be fully human through the changes in the human intelligence.

In fact, culture is interpreted in open and wide perspective; culture as folk-spirit of a unique identity. It positioned culture as human cultivation containing spirit to distract people from the atmosphere of disobedience towards perfection. Surely, culture must make a human can express themselves as a unique or authentic. Clifford Geertz views culture as human’s way of life, social heritage, how to think, how to feel and belief; behaviors’ abstraction a set of theory, and at the particular, is part for anthropology. It describes the way of human’s (authentic) warehouse of knowledge.

Seeing culture in different point of view lead us to distinguish the cultural meaning itself. There are five different point of views of culture: culture as a civilization, culture as ideology, culture as mechanism of stabilization, culture within the society, and culture based on region. Based on J.J. Hoenigman, there are three forms of culture which are idea, activity and artifact.

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